Simple, Cheap and Portable: A Filter-Free Desalination System for a Thirsty World


For a lot of the 10 years that I idly considered thermostats, I had no intention of constructing one. It was the early 2000s, and I used to be at Apple making the primary iPhone. I obtained married, had youngsters. I used to be busy.

However then once more, I used to be additionally actually chilly. Bone-chillingly chilly.

Each time my spouse and I drove as much as our Lake Tahoe ski cabin on Friday nights after work, we’d must maintain our snow jackets on till the following day. The home took all evening to warmth up.

Strolling into that frigid home drove me nuts. It was mind-boggling that there wasn’t a strategy to heat it up earlier than we obtained there. I spent dozens of hours and hundreds of {dollars} attempting to hack safety and laptop gear tied to an analog cellphone so I may hearth up the thermostat remotely. Half my holidays had been spent elbow-deep in wiring, electronics littering the ground. However nothing labored. So the primary evening of each journey was all the time the identical: We’d huddle on the ice block of a mattress, beneath the freezing sheets, watching our breath flip into fog till the home lastly warmed up by morning.

Then on Monday I’d return to Apple and work on the primary iPhone. Finally I noticed I used to be making an ideal distant management for a thermostat. If I may simply join the HVAC system to my iPhone, I may management it from wherever. However the know-how that I wanted to make it occur—dependable low-cost communications, low-cost screens and processors—didn’t exist but.

How did these ugly, piece-of-crap thermostats value nearly as a lot as Apple’s most cutting-edge know-how?

A yr later we determined to construct a brand new, superefficient home in Tahoe. Through the day I’d work on the iPhone, then I’d come dwelling and pore over specs for our home, selecting finishes and supplies and photo voltaic panels and, ultimately, tackling the HVAC system. And as soon as once more, the thermostat got here to hang-out me. All of the top-of-the-line thermostats had been hideous beige packing containers with bizarrely complicated person interfaces. None of them saved vitality. None may very well be managed remotely. They usually value round US $400. The iPhone, in the meantime, was promoting for $499.

How did these ugly, piece-of-crap thermostats value nearly as a lot as Apple’s most cutting-edge know-how?

The architects and engineers on the Tahoe challenge heard me complaining time and again about how insane it was. I informed them, “Someday, I’m going to repair this—mark my phrases!” All of them rolled their eyes—there goes Tony complaining once more!

At first they had been simply idle phrases born of frustration. However then issues began to vary. The success of the iPhone drove down prices for the subtle parts I couldn’t get my fingers on earlier. All of a sudden high-quality connectors and screens and processors had been being manufactured by the tens of millions, cheaply, and may very well be repurposed for different know-how.

My life was altering, too. I stop Apple and commenced touring the world with my household. A startup was not the plan. The plan was a break. An extended one.

We traveled everywhere in the globe and labored arduous not to consider work. However irrespective of the place we went, we couldn’t escape one factor: the goddamn thermostat. The infuriating, inaccurate, energy-hogging, thoughtlessly silly, impossible-to-program, always-too-hot-or-too-cold-in-some-part-of-the-house thermostat.

Somebody wanted to repair it. And ultimately I noticed that somebody was going to be me.

Hardware including a square with electronics and paper with CAD electronic diagrams.

This 2010 prototype of the Nest thermostat wasn’t fairly. However making the thermometer stunning could be the simple half. The circuit board diagrams level to the following step—making it spherical.Tom Crabtree

The massive firms weren’t going to do it. Honeywell and the opposite white-box opponents hadn’t really innovated in 30 years. It was a lifeless, unloved market with lower than $1 billion in whole annual gross sales in the US.

The one factor lacking was the need to make the leap. I wasn’t prepared to hold one other startup on my again. Not then. Not alone.

Then, magically, Matt Rogers, who’d been one of many first interns on the iPod challenge, reached out to me. He was an actual accomplice who may share the load. So I let the thought catch me. I got here again to Silicon Valley and started working. I researched the know-how, then the chance, the enterprise, the competitors, the folks, the financing, the historical past.

Making it stunning wasn’t going to be arduous. Attractive {hardware}, an intuitive interface—that we may do. We’d honed these abilities at Apple. However to make this product profitable—and significant—we wanted to resolve two massive issues:

It wanted to avoid wasting vitality.

And we wanted to promote it.

In North America and Europe, thermostats management half a house’s vitality invoice—one thing like $2,500 a yr. Each earlier try to cut back that quantity—by thermostat producers, by vitality firms, by authorities our bodies—had failed miserably for a bunch of various causes. We needed to do it for actual, whereas protecting it lifeless easy for purchasers.

Then we wanted to promote it. Nearly all thermostats at that time had been offered and put in by skilled HVAC technicians. We had been by no means going to interrupt into that previous boys’ membership. We needed to discover a method into folks’s minds first, then their houses. And we needed to make our thermostat really easy to put in that actually anybody may do it themselves.

It took round 9 to 12 months of constructing prototypes and interactive fashions, constructing bits of software program, speaking to customers and specialists, and testing it with mates earlier than Matt and I made a decision to pitch buyers.

“Actual Folks” Take a look at the Nest

As soon as we had prototypes of the thermostat, we despatched it out to actual folks to check.

It was fatter than we wished. The display wasn’t fairly what I imagined. Sort of like the primary iPod, truly. But it surely labored. It related to your cellphone. It realized what temperatures you preferred. It turned itself down when no person was dwelling. It saved vitality. We knew self-installation was probably an enormous stumbling block, so everybody waited with bated breath to see the way it went. Did folks shock themselves? Begin a fireplace? Abandon the challenge midway by as a result of it was too sophisticated? Quickly our testers reported in: Set up went effective. Folks beloved it. But it surely took about an hour to put in. Crap. An hour was method too lengthy. This wanted to be a straightforward DIY challenge, a fast improve.

So we dug into the reviews—what was taking so lengthy? What had been we lacking?

Our testers…spent the primary half-hour in search of instruments.

Seems we weren’t lacking something—however our testers had been. They spent the primary half-hour in search of instruments—the wire stripper, the flathead screwdriver; no, wait, we want a Phillips. The place did I put that?

As soon as they gathered every little thing they wanted, the remainder of the set up flew by. Twenty, half-hour tops.

I think most firms would have sighed with reduction. The precise set up took 20 minutes, in order that’s what they’d inform prospects. Nice. Downside solved.

However this was going to be the primary second folks interacted with our gadget. Their first expertise of Nest. They had been shopping for a $249 thermostat—they had been anticipating a distinct form of expertise. And we wanted to exceed their expectations. Each minute from opening the field to studying the directions to getting it on their wall to turning on the warmth for the primary time needed to be extremely easy. A buttery, heat, joyful expertise.

And we knew Beth. Beth was one in all two potential prospects we outlined. The opposite buyer was into know-how, beloved his iPhone, was all the time in search of cool new devices. Beth was the decider—she dictated what made it into the home and what obtained returned. She beloved stunning issues, too, however was skeptical of supernew, untested know-how. Looking for a screwdriver within the kitchen drawer after which the toolbox within the storage wouldn’t make her really feel heat and buttery. She could be rolling her eyes. She could be annoyed and irritated.

A white handheld device with 4 screwdriver heads, one on the bottom, and three at the top.

Delivery the Nest thermostat with a screwdriver “turned a second of frustration right into a second of pleasure”Dwight Eschliman

So we modified the prototype. Not the thermostat prototype—the set up prototype. We added one new aspect: a bit of screwdriver. It had 4 totally different head choices, and it match within the palm of your hand. It was smooth and cute. Most significantly, it was unbelievably helpful.

So now, as an alternative of rummaging by toolboxes and cabinets, looking for the proper instrument to pry their previous thermostat off the wall, prospects merely reached into the Nest field and took out precisely what they wanted. It turned a second of frustration right into a second of pleasure.

Honeywell Laughs

Sony laughed on the iPod. Nokia laughed on the iPhone. Honeywell laughed on the Nest Studying Thermostat.

At first.

Within the phases of grief, that is what we name Denial.

However quickly, as your disruptive product, course of, or enterprise mannequin begins to realize steam with prospects, your opponents will begin to get anxious. And after they notice you may steal their market share, they’ll get pissed. Actually pissed. When folks hit the Anger stage of grief, they lash out, they undercut your pricing, attempt to embarrass you with promoting, use destructive press to undermine you, put in new agreements with gross sales channels to lock you out of the market.

They usually may sue you.

The excellent news is {that a} lawsuit means you’ve formally arrived. We had a celebration the day Honeywell sued Nest. We had been thrilled. That ridiculous lawsuit meant we had been an actual risk they usually knew it. So we introduced out the champagne. That’s proper, f—ers. We’re coming on your lunch.

Nest Will get Googled

With each era, the product turned sleeker, slimmer, and cheaper to construct. In 2014, Google purchased Nest for $3.2 billion. In 2016 Google determined to promote Nest, so I left the corporate. Months after I left, Google modified its thoughts. At present, Google Nest is alive and effectively, they usually’re nonetheless making new merchandise, creating new experiences, delivering on their model of our imaginative and prescient. I deeply, genuinely, want them effectively.

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